Candela states that students may exercise power in that the teacher cannot control how the students respond to task structure, discussions and questions. However, as shown in our analysis, this power enactment by the students is not just something taking place in the individual interactions, but is constituted as an interactional pattern in the classroom.
In the Suburban School, science was staged as something that can be connected to coping with everyday activities and possible problems in life Roberts The students were invited to contribute with their own experiences as well as factual knowledge. In doing so, it was the students who brought new content to the fore.
ACPD - Surprising similarities in model and observational aerosol radiative forcing estimates
The active and free subject is a prerequisite and the very essence of modern societies, especially in neo-liberalised societies. In order for neoliberal power processes to work, it is necessary that the free subjects transpose norms and ideals of their own free will. In an increasingly individualised society where people are expected to be active, reflective and make choices for their own personal good, the students in these three classrooms were offered very different conditions to practice and learn to take part in knowledge-making, connect physics content to their everyday life and exercise informed citizenship.
While the teaching approaches in the different schools in this study might not give rise to the inclusion of very different physics content, the consequences for potential student subjectivities are quite dissimilar. In other words, the content is similar in all classrooms, but the establishment of the content and who gets to participate differ. Calls for a more knowledge-based curriculum, that are often heard in the educational policy debate e.
Young , do not consider this Biesta Teaching and learning include so much more than core knowledge.
From a policy perspective, it is not possible to change the conditions for education in more disadvantaged areas solely by prescribing more clearly what physics content to teach. Similarly, it is vital for teachers to direct their attention not only to which content is included or excluded, but also to who is invited to contribute to the progression of the development of content.
Approximate indications are used in order not to facilitate recognition. This research was supported by the Swedish Research Council grant dnr In addition, we would also like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Research in Science Education pp 1—20 Cite as. Open Access. First Online: 02 May Introduction On a general level, there are different purposes for studying science in school.
Approaches to Studying Power Aspects in Science Classrooms In the following, we present a review of research of classroom studies that either implicitly or explicitly investigates the working of power within science education. We approach the reciprocity of power relations and disciplinary-specific knowledge, values and norms by taking a knowledge-based framework as our starting point.
The purpose is to explore and contrast different approaches to how power operates in the practice of physics teaching. This is done by investigating how actions contribute to produce knowledge in classroom situations, through the research questions: What is privileged as relevant knowledge in the different physics classrooms?
The City School The overall impression from this class was that as a whole the students were very academically capable, and many of the students participated in the whole class discussions and showed an interest in physics, in relation to the topic being taught and beyond.
The first lesson of the teaching unit concerning energy sources and the production of electricity begun with the teacher describing what they were going to do during the whole unit, including outlining what parts of the physics national curriculum the unit corresponded to.
The bulk of the unit was carried out in the form of a group project, where the groups were assigned one type of renewable or non-renewable energy source, such as nuclear power, hydropower, fossil fuels or solar energy, to present orally to the rest of the class. In the final lesson, each student was allocated another source of energy than their project type, and a debate for or against this was carried out. Before the group project started, the teacher provided an introduction to the nuclear reactor, which connected to the previous teaching unit which addressed atomic and nuclear physics.
This teaching sequence served to show how teaching content was commonly distributed in this classroom. The teacher drove the classroom conversation, but invited students to contribute by posing questions that typically demand short, factual answers: Excerpt 2 TEACHER: [ We will present two excerpts from a briefing during the second lesson to serve as examples of the classroom transactions.
Do you remember what we did last time? They talked about some of the concepts echo, frequency, Hertz connected to the sound unit that were mentioned in the first lesson. The teacher encouraged everybody to find something to take notes on, which eventually all students did.
The teaching sequence about how sound travels was elaborated on some more using the concepts of compression and rarefaction, and the teacher continued the drawing: Excerpt 4 TEACHER: […]Then there is some rarefaction and then there are fewer air molecules here and then when it vibrates back and forth there start to be constant compressions and rarefactions over the molecules in the air. Excerpts from the introductory lesson will serve as examples of the transactions between teacher and students in relation to the subject content.
The teacher noted all of this on the whiteboard in front of the students. By doing this, the teacher confirmed that the suggestions presented were valid in a physics teaching context. One student suggested that sound exists everywhere.
This suggestion was not immediately accepted by the teacher. As a response to this, the suggestion that sound does not exist in space came up from another student. With this line of action, the teacher allowed for the students to introduce the new content in a manner that can be described as letting the students take the lead.
Meanwhile, the teacher also delineated what was possible to bring to the fore by not accepting all suggestions, and directing attention towards what was important to acknowledge. In the example mentioned above, delineation was made by specifying in what conditions sound can propagate.
Similarities between Physics and Engineering
Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Swedish Research Council grant dnr Archer, L. American Educational Research Journal, 49 5 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Is science for us? Science Education, 99 , — Barker, D. Power and group work in physical education: a Foucauldian perspective. Biesta, G. Pragmatising the curriculum: bringing knowledge back into the curriculum conversation, but via pragmatism. The Curriculum Journal, 25 , 29— Science Education, 97 4 , — Candela, A. Linguistics and Education, 10 , — Carlone, H. Assessing equity beyond knowledge- and skills-based outcomes: a comparative ethnography of two fourth-grade reform-based science classrooms.
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