In contrast with OSPF; RIP provides only a simple form of authentication, it has slow convergence times, and its network size scalability   .
Using this database, a routing table is calculated by building a shortest path tree. The tree gives the entire path to any destination network or host. OSPF runs directly over IP and provides load balancing by spreading traffic across various routes to a specific destination. Moreover, OSPF allows great flexibility and delivers transfer and tagging of external routes inserted into AS   . DUAL also assists avoiding loops that may take place in routing. Moreover, EIGRP protocol scales well to large networks, preserves back up path to reach the destination and supports routing update authentication   .
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The labels are inserted between the Layer 3 header and the Layer 2 header. The primary objective of MPLS is to create a flexible networking framework that delivers boosted performance and stability. These routing protocols are designed to find the shortest path through the network, and they do not consider other factors, such as latency or traffic congestion. This connection-oriented architecture releases the access to rich new features and possibilities for managing data streams in an IP networks using new MPLS technology which combines the intelligence of routing with the high performance of switching  .
The control plane is responsible for keeping the routing data and other control information, such as label bindings, which are exchanged between label switch routers LSRs. However, MPLS is a control plane guided protocol. Thus, the control information needed for exchange must be ready before forwarding the first data packet. LDP is a protocol that describes a set of procedures and messages that are used by any LSR router to inform another LSR router about the label bindings it has generated.
These LSPs may have an endpoint at a directly attached neighbor like IP hop-by-hop forwarding , or may have an endpoint at a network egress node, facilitating switching through all intermediate network nodes. The MPLS forwarding plane is in charge of forwarding packets based on values enclosed in appended labels.
Deploying IP and MPLS QoS for Multiservice Networks
VoIP, video on demand and video conferencing, and e-commerce. In the following section a brief description about VoIP, video conferencing and their QoS requirements are presented. These digital voice packets then carried by communication networks, using either a carrier network or the Internet. However, the cost is the essential key motivating the deploying of VoIP networks. Hence, telecom companies setup new infrastructures, added better-quality to multimedia and invested in large-scale data networks. In traditional public switched telephone network PSTN , switching is used to connect two separate phone circuits into one single line to make the phone conversation between the calling parties.
Whereas, in VoIP case software switching can be used to signal, control and makeup the connections over IP networks to complete the phone calls. Moreover, there are some significant issues have been influenced on the reusing of the traditional IP networks as a VoIP running vehicle.
These issues include: QoS, using standards by vendors to keep interoperability, security, integration with PSTN and scalability   . However, QoS demonstrates a systematized collection of approaches that are used to control network bandwidth, end-to-end delay, jitter, and packet loss to achieve an appropriate throughput to the network to fulfil real-time multimedia streaming requirements.
QoS for VoIP is defined using different parameters; the common factors are end-to-end delay, delay variation jitter and packet loss ratio. Hence, the main goal of QoS is to control the delay jitter, one way end-to-end delay and to provide a sufficient bandwidth to deliver the real-time multimedia traffic e. VoIP effectively within the delay times acceptable limits.
The delay Jitter is defined as the variability of consecutive packets delays within the same packet stream at arrival to the receiving end; i. A packet loss is defined as the number of packets that are lost during transmission process inside the network within a defined time period. However, packet loss may occur due to: network congestion, lower layers errors, network element failures or due to the end application errors. End-to-end delay is defined as the time it taken to deliver a packet from the sender to the receiver.
Advanced QoS for Multi-Service IPMPLS Networks_nodrm.pdf
For real-time voice conversation VoIP , the end-to-end delays between and msecs is acceptable but are not perfect. Typically, the receiver of a VoIP call will define certain threshold e. Once the called party is found the request sent to the user; hence user can accept or decline the session setup. Finally, after the both sides finish the VoIP call the session is terminated  . Figure 1 : VoIP session However, this technical configuration indicates that a huge data is used for the simulation run in the case study to investigate the network topology running the VoIP application comprehensively.
In addition, figure 4 shows the same comparison but for the MPLS network. From figure 5 it is seen that OSPF produced the highest packet end-to- However, for IP network; all the three routing protocols have nearly same values; as seen in figure 7. This type of result to show that the OPNET simulation tool can provide network designersmany other figures to further analysis the network topology under design: in this casethe path node0-to-node8 point-to-point delay and the path node0-to-node8 throughput is illustrated in figure 9 parts a and b respectively.
However, figure 9 part a showed that OSPF has the lowest queuing delay, while; part b depicted that OSPF has the highest throughput for the given path. The VoIP has been selected as a candidate application because it is the most commonly used application by millions of people over the Internet. The simulation results showed that the introduction of MPLS into IP networks improved the multimedia streaming by reducing packet delay variation and end-to-end delay due to the enhanced capabilities of MPLS.
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